New ideas for improving the design method of packaging machinery
at present, the ocean freight from Brazil to China is $9.285/ton. The packaging machinery industry in China started in the 1970s and developed rapidly in the late 1980s and mid 1990s. It has become one of the top 10 industries in the machinery industry, and has made remarkable achievements in both output and variety, which provides a strong guarantee for the rapid development of China's packaging industry so that the measurement and control function of the experimental machine can be greatly improved. At present, China has become one of the world's major countries in the production and consumption of packaging machinery industry. As a product, the meaning of packaging machinery is not only the material meaning of the product itself, but also includes three meanings: formal product, invisible product and extended product. Formal product refers to the specific form and basic function of the packaging machine itself; Invisible product refers to the actual utility provided by the packaging machine to users; Extended products refer to the quality assurance, use guidance and after-sales service of packaging machines. Therefore, the design of the packaging machine should include: Market Research, schematic design, structural design, construction drawing design, preparation of instructions and after-sales service plan.
2 current situation of packaging machinery design in China
the categories of packaging machinery design mainly include: Surveying and mapping imitation design, development design, improvement design, and serialization design. For example, the production capacity of the beer filling production line is 16000 ~ 40000 bottles/h, in which the filling machine can't cut even some socks with sharp scissors. The number of valve positions from 48, 60, 90 to 120 belongs to the series design.
the design from ordinary beer filling production line to draft beer filling production line belongs to improved and developmental design. At present, we can basically design our own packaging machines with medium and low speed. Most of the high-speed packaging machines, especially some advanced models, are surveying and mapping, imitating similar foreign models, and carrying out localization design and seriation design. The main reasons are: (1) most designers have not really mastered the advanced design methods, such as the dynamic design theory and method of high-speed packaging machinery, and the dynamic accuracy analysis of the mechanism under high-speed working conditions can not be simulated and solved; (2) The combination of production, learning and research is not close enough, the theoretical scientific research achievements can not be applied in the actual design in time, and the designers lack timely technical training; (3) The whole industry lacks the strength of macro-control, and the advantageous resources cannot be reasonably allocated and adjusted.
in the field of packaging machinery design, most designers still use the previous design methods: (1) look for similar models as prototypes according to the design specification; (2) Formulate various technical performance indexes and application scope with reference to the prototype; (3) Design working principle diagram and transmission system diagram; (4) Design key parts and components; (5) Design the general assembly plan and action cycle diagram; (6) Design component drawings, general assembly drawings and part drawings; (7) Check the strength and stiffness of key parts in the main components; (8) Design control schematic diagram, construction drawing, etc. Nowadays, the design software of some domestic universities can carry out finite element analysis and optimal design of common mechanisms in packaging machines. The CAD/CAM software of cam linkage mechanism developed by them has been able to meet the independent design ability of enterprises, but it is not widely used in the design of actual packaging machinery.
new packaging machinery is often an equipment integrating machinery, electricity and gas. By making full use of the latest achievements of information products and adopting separation transmission technologies such as pneumatic actuator and servo motor drive, the transmission chain of the whole machine can be greatly shortened, the structure can be greatly simplified, and the working accuracy and speed can be greatly improved. One of the key technologies is the synchronous control technology of multi motor drive. In fact, it is not difficult to master this technology, but some designers do not understand the development trend of packaging machinery. If the design of packaging machinery in China used to be imitation and learning stage, now we should have the consciousness of innovative design.
3 new trends in German packaging machinery design
Germany, the United States, Japan and Italy are all major countries in the world of packaging machinery. It is in a leading position in the design, manufacturing and technical performance of packaging machinery. The design of German packaging machinery is based on the results of market research and market analysis. Its goal is to strive to serve customers, especially large enterprises. In order to meet the requirements of customers, German packaging machinery manufacturers and design departments have taken many measures:
(1) the degree of automation of process flow is getting higher and higher to improve productivity and the flexibility and flexibility of equipment. Use a manipulator to complete complex actions. During operation, under the information and monitoring of the camera controlled by the computer, the manipulator completes the specified actions according to the computer instructions to ensure the quality of the packaging.
(2) improve production efficiency, reduce production costs and meet production requirements to the greatest extent. German packaging machinery is good at beverage, beer filling machinery and food packaging machinery. It has the characteristics of high speed, complete set, high degree of automation and good reliability. Its beverage filling speed is as high as 120000 bottles/h, and the packaging speed of the small bag packaging machine is as high as 900 bags/min.
(3) integrate product machinery and packaging machinery. Many products require direct packaging after production to improve production efficiency. For example, the chocolate production and packaging equipment produced in Germany is controlled by a system. The key to the integration of the two is to solve the problem of matching each other in production capacity.
(4) adapt to the changes of products and have good flexibility and flexibility. Due to the fierce competition in the market, the cycle of product upgrading is getting shorter and shorter. For example, the production of cosmetics changes every three years, or even every quarter, and the production volume is large. Therefore, it is required that the packaging machinery has good flexibility and flexibility, so that the life of the packaging machinery is much longer than the life cycle of the product, so as to meet the requirements of economy.
(5) computer simulation design technology is widely used. With the rapid development of new products, computer simulation design technology is widely used in the design of packaging machinery in Germany, which greatly shortens the development and design cycle of packaging machinery.
the design of packaging machinery should not only pay attention to its ability and efficiency, but also pay attention to its economy. The so-called economy is not entirely the cost of mechanical equipment itself, but more importantly, the operating cost, because equipment Depreciation accounts for only 6% - 8% of the cost, and the rest is the operating cost.
4 ideas for improving the design method of packaging machinery
first of all, in terms of design concept, we should learn from the experience of advanced countries, take the needs of users as the design goal, and combine the concepts of flexible design and modular design. One machine can be used for multiple purposes, or a small number of parts and components can be replaced to complete different functions or meet different product needs.
with the development of science and technology and the intensification of market competition, the demand of customers is also increasing. This demand is reflected in the following aspects: first, improve production efficiency to meet the needs of delivery time and reduce production costs. For some products, packaging machinery and production machinery are also required to be connected; Second, in order to meet the needs of product renewal and change, packaging machinery should have high flexibility and flexibility; Third, when the equipment fails, remote diagnosis service is required; Fourth, it is conducive to environmental protection, with less noise, dust and waste; Fifth, the investment in equipment purchase should be as little as possible, and the price should be as low as possible. Therefore, on the basis of market research, we must fully understand and carefully analyze the needs of users, determine the functions and technical indicators that the packaging machine should complete, and formulate a preliminary principle design scheme. The design process of modern packaging machine should include: Market Research, user demand analysis, determination of packaging machine function, feasibility demonstration, formulation of design scheme, user benefit analysis, feasibility demonstration of scheme, schematic design, structural design, construction drawing design, prototype production (Virtual Manufacturing), technical verification and construction drawing modification, formulation of after-sales service plan and remote diagnosis scheme, improved design Serial design, etc.
market research is the basic work of all packaging machine design. Without market research, all the design work we do may be equal to zero. Market research, according to policy guidance, industry supply and demand information, expert analysis, industry exhibitions, technical exchanges and other clues, we can find the user's demand information, sort it out and analyze it, and determine the functions that the packaging machine should complete.
in the process of principle scheme design, we should first fully understand the functions of relevant information products and electronic products, understand the performance of pneumatic components, and use them to simplify the mechanical transmission system. We can also use multi motor drive to shorten the mechanical transmission chain. For the essential mechanical transmission system, modern design means should be used as much as possible. On the basis of product function analysis, the best design scheme can be obtained through innovative ideas, system modeling, dynamic analysis and dynamic optimization.
technical design is to structure the principle design, determine the number, shape, size, material, etc. of parts, and carry out dynamic calculation, power calculation, strength calculation and stiffness calculation for key parts in main components.
in the overall design, the layout, motion coordination, modeling design, man-machine environment and packing transportation of the whole packaging machine system should be fully considered. Modular design is an advanced design method. Its core idea is to divide the system into several modules according to its functions, design the units with the same function in the packaging machine into interchangeable modules with different performance, and make the packaging machine multifunctional and serialized through different combinations of modules. The advantages of adopting this method are: (1) accelerating the updating speed of the packaging machine. Because the replacement of new models is often partial improvement. It is easier to realize partial improvement by introducing advanced technology into corresponding modules; (2) Shorten the design cycle. When the user requests, just replace the module or design and manufacture some modules to get a new model to meet the user's needs; (3) Reduce costs and facilitate maintenance; (4) Stable and reliable performance. Because when designing the module, the function division and module design of the packaging machine are carefully studied to ensure the performance of the module, such as cam mechanism, servo mechanism, detection system, transmission system, control system, metering mechanism, blanking mechanism, etc.
in addition, it is time to formulate the industrial standards for serialization and modularization of packaging machinery. Packaging machinery has become one of the top ten machinery industries in China, and the formulation of the industrial standards for serialization and modularization will certainly promote China's packaging machinery industry to a new level.
with the proposal of the virtual concept and the synchronous development of electronic technology, computer aided design (CAD), three-dimensional graphic design (3D) and computer simulation design, a new technology virtual design and virtual manufacturing is adopted in the design, that is, the principle of tensile testing machine for various machine elements: the power source of the host is a motor database stored in the computer, and the drawings are digitized and input into the computer, The computer can automatically become a three-dimensional model. Then input the actual production data and indicators, and input all kinds of possible faults, and the computer three-dimensional model can operate in imitation of the real working situation, demonstrating the achievable production capacity, the quantity of waste products, and the matching of all links of the production line
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